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Punches

 

There are four basic punches in boxing: the jab, cross, hook and uppercut. Any punch other than a jab is considered a power punch. If a boxer is right-handed (orthodox), his left hand is the lead hand and his right hand is the rear hand. For a left-handed boxer or southpaw, the hand positions are reversed. For clarity, the following discussion will assume a right-handed boxer.

 

  • Jab – A quick, straight punch thrown with the lead hand from the guard position. The jab is accompanied by a small, clockwise rotation of the torso and hips, while the fist rotates 90 degrees, becoming horizontal upon impact. As the punch reaches full extension, the lead shoulder can be brought up to guard the chin. The rear hand remains next to the face to guard the jaw. After making contact with the target, the lead hand is retracted quickly to resume a guard position in front of the face.
    • The jab is recognized as the most important punch in a boxer’s arsenal because it provides a fair amount of its own cover and it leaves the least amount of space for a counter punch from the opponent. It has the longest reach of any punch and does not require commitment or large weight transfers. Due to its relatively weak power, the jab is often used as a tool to gauge distances, probe an opponent’s defenses, harass an opponent, and set up heavier, more powerful punches. A half-step may be added, moving the entire body into the punch, for additional power. Some notable boxers who have been able to develop relative power in their jabs and use it to punish or ‘wear down’ their opponents to some effect include Larry Holmes and Wladimir Klitschko
  • Cross – A powerful, straight punch thrown with the rear hand. From the guard position, the rear hand is thrown from the chin, crossing the body and traveling towards the target in a straight line. The rear shoulder is thrust forward and finishes just touching the outside of the chin. At the same time, the lead hand is retracted and tucked against the face to protect the inside of the chin. For additional power, the torso and hips are rotated counter-clockwise as the cross is thrown. A measure of an ideally extended cross is that the shoulder of the striking arm, the knee of the front leg and the ball of the front foot are on the same vertical plane.
    • Weight is also transferred from the rear foot to the lead foot, resulting in the rear heel turning outwards as it acts as a fulcrum for the transfer of weight. Body rotation and the sudden weight transfer is what gives the cross its power. Like the jab, a half-step forward may be added. After the cross is thrown, the hand is retracted quickly and the guard position resumed. It can be used to counter punch a jab, aiming for the opponent’s head (or a counter to a cross aimed at the body) or to set up a hook. The cross is also called a “straight” or “right”, especially if it does not cross the opponent’s outstretched jab.
  • Hook – A semi-circular punch thrown with the lead hand to the side of the opponent’s head. From the guard position, the elbow is drawn back with a horizontal fist (knuckles pointing forward) and the elbow bent. The rear hand is tucked firmly against the jaw to protect the chin. The torso and hips are rotated clockwise, propelling the fist through a tight, clockwise arc across the front of the body and connecting with the target.
    • At the same time, the lead foot pivots clockwise, turning the left heel outwards. Upon contact, the hook’s circular path ends abruptly and the lead hand is pulled quickly back into the guard position. A hook may also target the lower body and this technique is sometimes called the “rip” to distinguish it from the conventional hook to the head. The hook may also be thrown with the rear hand. Notable left hookers include Joe Frazier and Mike Tyson.
  • Uppercut – A vertical, rising punch thrown with the rear hand. From the guard position, the torso shifts slightly to the right, the rear hand drops below the level of the opponent’s chest and the knees are bent slightly. From this position, the rear hand is thrust upwards in a rising arc towards the opponent’s chin or torso.
    • At the same time, the knees push upwards quickly and the torso and hips rotate anti-clockwise and the rear heel turns outward, mimicking the body movement of the cross. The strategic utility of the uppercut depends on its ability to “lift” the opponent’s body, setting it off-balance for successive attacks. The right uppercut followed by a left hook is a deadly combination employing the uppercut to lift the opponent’s chin into a vulnerable position, then the hook to knock the opponent out.

Fighting styles and training

Free fight – fight conducted in accordance with the rules of the competition , without limitation applied boxer technical and tactical vehicles. Fight free – basic exercise in which boxer defines itself and produces his own style of combat. Depending on the tasks that confronts a boxer in a free fight , the latter can be very intense and very easy , but the boxer should always strive to fight was a skilled and creative meaningful . When the coach deems it necessary to check the level of preparedness boxer directly in combat , he can offer him and his sparring partner full three round fight. During freestyle battle should take all precautions to avoid injury boxers . Protective mask, teeth protector , solid bandage , bandages and heavy training gloves – mandatory equipment trainee’s boxer

Fight at close range – a duel boxers on a shortened distance , tolerate your direct contact torso rivals. In the battle at close range boxers cause short shots / direct , bottom , side / . At this distance the boxer should be particularly attentive to the protection . His fighting stance should be more collected to maximize cover the most vulnerable places on the body. Boxer must always be the enemy at a distance , from which he can give to his shock sufficient sharpness and strength. In addition, shifting weight from one foot to the boxer creates most favorable starting position for attacks and defenses . Calculate distance melee should particularly accurately. Inaccurate calculation distance negligent New build movements of the enemy can lead to accidental bumps his head and , as a consequence, injuries , cut eyebrows , etc. Fight at close range requires a high level of fine motor sensations boxers

Fight at long range – fight boxers , allowing to carry out active operations only through the convergence of opponents . This distance is determined by the distance from which the boxer can get hit with the opponent step forward. This distance is in the main battle . At the beginning of training boxers learn all the technical means used to fight at a distance. Distant distance determined individually by each boxer according to the length of his arms, and increase stride length . In the battle tactically boxer elect long range in cases where strives to provide a defense , to a large extent to protect themselves from attacks partner and use their superiority in speed of movement. Being at the far distance, a boxer seeks convenient moments to attack. Before the attack, it is best to distract the enemy trained and deceptive actions.

Fight for the middle distance – a duel boxers , allowing to perform percussion and protective action without rapprochement with rival. Average distance determined by the distance to the opponent , in which you can without making a step forward to apply long strokes / straight side , hitting bottom / single, double, or combining them in a series . Fight for the middle distance is the main form of conducting a duel qualified boxers because takes a longer time in the actions of opponents compared to the battle scenes on the near and far distances. Due to the fact that the average distance rivals are in a combat zone , to operate effectively in this race can only clever , resolute and enterprising boxer who knows how to combine strokes with accurate protection. Act on the middle distance is necessary in a consolidated rack. As a rule , the boxer , while on the middle distance, moves mostly single and double sliding steps. All maneuverable and deceptive motion made ​​only movements and movements of the body .

Fight qualifying – official match in informal competitions or during the training process in order to identify the strongest fighters for acquisition team

Fight passive – a duel held opponents without the initiative , with a low density of hostilities

Fight Demonstration – conditional , informal duel without awarding victory to demonstrate the technical and tactical techniques and actions , used in boxing

Semifinal fight – fight in the final result is determined by a pair of the best boxers . Boxers , losers semifinal fight already become winners of the competition. The winners of the semifinal bouts are contenders for the title of winner of the competition / champion /

Fight Preview – every official match boxers to the semifinal fights in competitions

Equal fight – fight , in which the advantage of each of the boxers in the evaluation victory judges and uniquely and minimally

Shadowboxing – conditional fight a boxer with an imaginary opponent . Based on simulation of complex military operations. Helps to better master the technique of boxing and improve the necessary motor skills. In training a boxer ” shadow boxing ” is one of the basic exercises . Tasks boxer in ” battle with shadow ” always defined topic training sessions . Those fighting tools that are studied in this lesson , study and ” fight with the shadow .” Gradually from class to class , as Learning ” shadow boxing ” complicate the new technical elements. In training an experienced boxer ” shadow boxing ” is used to warm up before combat exercises with a partner. ” Shadowboxing ” excellent tunes system of boxer on specific activities in the fight in the ring

Fight technically – fight boxer passing without breaking the rules , with a high level of skill.

Fight training – is an essential learning tool and methodical training boxer. He always conducted in vivo , when rivals are moving freely in the ring, or in the area , creating a situation for sudden action. Fight should not be rude , power , aka so in this case it has no training value. Installation in combat training should always be skillful opponent harping on the basis of different techniques offensive and defensive operations and flexible tactics

Fight conditional – practiced in the training process boxers fight with a certain limitation of technical and tactical tools and specific job . Fight conditional consists of bilateral action partners. Each of them has the right to attack, defend , counterattack , using a variety of punches and protection , improve the ability to conduct close combat . Fight conditional wide task usually given Rounds . In these battles , not only improving technical skills of boxers , but also develop its special qualities – endurance , speed , agility, operational thinking , forecasting environment , etc.

Combat Training – battle without determining the winner . In the training process aimed at consolidating certain technical and tactical combinations under conditions close to combat . Is one of the main methodological tools on which the coach determines the quality of execution of the boxer or other techniques , technical and tactical actions and readiness athletes to compete .

Fight dummy – a duel opponents by mutual agreement . May be conducted at demonstrations or boxers during training for practicing of specific tactical combinations. At official events , meetings, matches – is unacceptable. Boxers found to have run a fictitious battle, shall be punished by up to disqualification .

The final battle – the final meeting of athletes , which eventually determined the champion / winner / competition boxers in this weight category

Quarterfinal bout – a duel , in which participants are determined by the semi-finals – medalists .